Thursday, 28 August 2014

Tourism and the community development

Objectives
1.      To reveal the truth of elevation of the tourism in the human history.
2.      To illustrate the meaning of tourism in short glance.
3.      To explain the brief history of travel and tourism.
4.      To explain the tourism as the main backbone of every country. 

The word tourism has been existed before its origin but in the tragic form from the undated era of the human history in tourism field, understanding on the word travel as a tour. For the premature living, the word ‘travel’ was not associated with the word pleasure as we consider in the present day.  It was originated from the world ‘travail’ meaning painful and laborious. The word ‘holiday’ has its own origin from the word ‘holy day’, only time to relax and rejoice on celebrating the festivals in the nobility of their own guardian saints and deities. ‘Travail’ was the first word used for the ‘travel’ because those times people used to travel from one place to another just for the sake of filling their belly. So despite the suffering they faced the travelling was been like mandatory for them to survive. The religion was the way of living; those people used to pray for infinite image of the god for their well-being and protection, gradually started to perform ritual and some festivals. After the words ‘travail’ and ‘travel’ the very next word in tourism to be discovered was the ‘Holy day’ and was been only a time to enjoy with immeasurable happiness with their family. Form the word ‘holy day’ they had coined the word ‘Holiday’.
When time kept on rolling with its second hand the civilisation of the people gradually developed and introduced with the new system of living with trade, war and conquering new lands. At the same time, people never neglected the ethics they had originated from the religion they followed. The pilgrimage and the religious travel to perform the rituals had been seen in all over the world. Pilgrimage and the travel for the treatment at natural springs and spas were been popular in the mid-seventeenth century when doctors advocated the healing powers of mineral water. Naturally they soon became the vital meeting places for the travellers. 
Travel for leisure was started from the early nineteenth century and tourism as a profession was born in the beginning of that century. Later it grew to the business after the transportation revolution that occurred around the time of World War II. Now tourism is a full-fledged industry within the reach of the common living being. 
Throughout the elevation of human history, people have exhibited the voracious needed of the travel in a life. There had been always a reason to change one’s place to another place; be it for survival or business purposes. From the recorded history of inscriptions, monuments and coins show that the early people undertook the travel but the situation was in difficult and hazardous of the natural calamities. People travelled but on plain foot in search of food and shelter. They carried their belongings on their back and heavier items on the pole and carried by the two men. But people moved on braving the force of nature and their calamities on their way.
The word civilisation in the practice was started from the early 10,000 BC, then by late 8000 BC during the Neolithic period people had started living together and developed the settlement instead of continuously moving in search of food from one place to another.  They developed the farming systems such as growing their own food and undertook the domestication of the wild animal. From the archaeological research first animal to be domesticated by the human was known to be dogs drawing from the 8400BC and were used for the hunting purposes.
First agriculture practices developed in the Middle East leading to the formation of settlement around 8000 BC. During that period civilisations were also developing simultaneously in the world. Since the men did not have to wander in search of food, they could use their time in developing other ideas. Trade begun amongst various settlements and need of better transportation system was felt. Travel on house back and dog-cart began and started to become popular with the military movement to acquire land and conquer tribes throughout the world.   
By late 5000 BC, water transportation was started in form of rafts and canoes propelled by the poles and paddles in the rivers and lakes. The development of wheel by the Sumerians, ancient inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia, was the major landmark ion the travel industry has witnessed. Later roads were constructed and chariots, wagon and carriages naturally started to develop making the comfortable way for the traveller. 
The word tourism came to practice in tour with the development of tour in England by Sir Thomas Cook during the industrial revolution that occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. And that period was being noticed by the major changes in the agriculture, manufacturing and transportation by the development of living standard of people. In the account of tourism history the Romans were the first to pave the roads out of stone and gravel of 80,000 kilometres length from 100 BC to 400 BC but by this road it never helped in perfect development of tourism in the world.   
One of the first and major products of the industrial revolution to affect tourism was the development of steam engine used in the industries for manufacturing and transportation. Rail locomotive with a steam engine was used for the transportation of passengers and goods in 1825-35 AD in the world. In 1841 AD, Thomas Cook, the pioneer new ground travel agent organised a special train to carry 570 passengers from Leicester to Loughborough to attend a meeting.  Later subsequently after two years he under took nearly 3000 school children on the trip from Leicester to Derby. He in traduced the concept of chartered transport and packages tour which resulted in a burst of pleasure travel. Hence people started to visit pleasure destination like spas and beaches across the world. After the rail ways air travel has its origin with the use of hot-air balloon in 1783 by the French. The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur had succeeded in sailing their model airplane in December 1903 near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The plan flew nearly 120 feet at about 48 kilometres per hours. With the series of changes in the human exhibitions air travel became commercial in 1919, shortly after the World War I offering the daily flights from Paris to London. These were the brief accounts of how tourism elevated in the practice of tour.
The last unrecorded decade has witnessed an increase in tourism activities. After the date of making air travel into commercial operation people started to travel from one place to another. Tourism, both in domestic and international witnessed the rapid growing in the world by every nation.